The Helping Hand Called the Internet

History of IoT:

The IoT technology was created in the year 1999 by Kevin Ashton and it stands for “Internet of Things”. A visionary technologist, Ashton was giving a presentation for Procter & Gamble where he described IoT as a technology that connected several devices with the help of RFID tags for supply chain management. He specifically used the word “internet” in the title of his presentation in order to draw the audience’s attention since the internet was just becoming a big deal that time.“The internet of things (IoT) has only recently become ingrained in our everyday life.” (Khvoynitskaya). The Internet of Things, as a concept, wasn’t officially named until 1999.

Early 1980’s

One of the first examples of an Internet of Things is from the early 1980s, and was a Coca Cola machine, located at the Carnegie Melon University. Local programmers would connect by Internet to the refrigerated appliance, and check to see if there was a drink available, and if it was cold, before making the trip.

Early 1990’s

One of the most notable inventions of IoT is the Trojan room coffee pot from 1991Not long after the launch of the WWW, a group of researchers at The University of Cambridge constructed the first ever webcam to record the computer lab’s coffee machine in real time. Since the coffee machine was located in the main computer lab, ‘the Trojan room’, those working nearby often exhausted the coffee supply before workers from farther rooms could get their share.

By arranging a camera to monitor the pot and writing software to allow department members to view the footage on computer, everyone an equal chance to make their way to the Trojan room in order to fill up on caffeine. From these examples it is evident that Internet-controlled objects have been an area of interest for about as long as the Internet has existed.

Late 2000’s Era

It wasn’t until 2014, however, that the IoT became known within the mass market, with the development of the Google Nest. Google bought Nest Labs in January of 2014 for $3.2 billion and began producing a range of IoT devices including thermostats, speakers and security cameras among many others. This would mark the beginning of the smart home market. With current developments, households are now able to do the most with the IoT devices, However, this is now cause of concern with cybersecurity.

The Dangerous Side of IoT

The large scope and scale and the vast physical distribution of IoT makes it difficult to protect it from threats and attacks of cybercrimes, and the high demand of IoT products has resulted in manufacturers rushing production to gain competitive advantage, further neglecting security requirements. The result of this has left many IoT devices vulnerable to cyberwarfare, including denial-of-service attacks (DDoS). DDoS attacks intend to disrupt regular traffic of a network or server by overwhelming the target with a flood of Internet traffic. These attacks are executed through a network of devices connected to the Internet (IoT) that have been infected by malicious software, allowing the attacker/s to control the devices remotely. Once a group of devices becomes infected, they are referred to as botnets. These botnets are difficult to detect as they disguise their presence and movements as they infect the network. Since IoT devices can interact with the physical world unlike other IT devices, it’s difficult to monitor and safeguard them.

An example of a DDoS attack on IoT is the Mirai Botnet, also referred to as the Dyn Attack from 2016. With the use of an IoT botnet, this was the largest DDoS attack ever recorded. The attack on service provider Dyn, which controls a large portion of the Internet’s domain name system, caused almost half of the Internet to break down, including Twitter, Netflix and Reddit. The root cause of this attack? Inadequate security practice in IoT devices. If the IoT market was to continue to grow, manufacturers would have to implement more security to ensure customers that their data is safe. One of the most effective methods to do so, was implementing blockchain technology.

What is Blockchain

Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. (IBM) An asset can be tangible (a house, car, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding). Virtually anything of value can be tracked and traded on a blockchain network, reducing risk and cutting costs for all involved.

Blockchain, a decentralized database that stores information in a chronological chain, has improved the security of IoT devices by allowing devices to exchange smart contracts in a secure, distributed environment. The implementation of blockchain technology is imperative for improving issues around scalability, privacy, and reliability related to the IoT paradigm, as the blockchain allows every user access to all previous information, upholding security and reliability through the requirement of all participants reaching a consensus on the validation of each transaction.

Future Developments

The IoT is rapidly changing and modifying to suit a high speed helping hand for all households. However the more technology develops the more we will have to take care of our privacy and security. It’s reasonable to assume that the future will see more everyday objects become connected to the Internet, as today we already have access to Internet-connected kitchen appliances, speakers, security cameras and even furniture. IoT causes objects to dramatically shift in the way appear in their environments, making them exist on the same plane as humans. The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) in these devices will allow them to learn patterns and behaviors of their surroundings and their users. Eventually IoT objects will know so much about our individual behavior, they will outsmart humans and hold the power to do our jobs, perhaps even performing better. From simple examples such as self-serve checkouts, to revolutionary technology in medical practices, such as AI machines being able to diagnose patients. If we are to reach this stage, how much purpose will humans really serve? To Conclude, AI could serve purpose in further protecting IoT from hackers, by learning signs of unusual activity. Considering DDoS attacks are likely to become even more vicious, studying suspicious behaviors autonomously in the background could assist in preventing these attacks. To conclude, if we want to continue relying on IoT devices in the mundane areas of our lives, we must be prepared for them to exceed our intelligence, and equip them with a high level of security to keep ourselves and our devices safe.

References :

Mitew, T. (2014) ‘Do Objects Dream of an Internet of Things?’, Fibreculture Journal, 2014 (23), 1-25.

Fay, R., Trenholm, W., 2021. The Cyber Security Battlefield – Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Security Centre of International Governance Innovation (blog)

Bleecker, J. (2006) ‘Why Things Matter: A Manifesto for networked objects’  

Reyna, A., Martín, C., Chen, J., Soler, E. and Díaz, M., 2018. On blockchain and its integration with IoT. Challenges and opportunities.Future generation computer systems88, pp.173-190. [Accessed 20 October, 2021].

Peer Commentary For Beta (BCM 241)

Peer commentary in BCM 241 has helped gain opinions and advice from an audience perspective to improve DA’s and gain more knowledge in subject materials. The first round of commenting for pitches I went in with more of a brief opinion about the DA, so I decided to go more into depth with frameworks for this round of commenting and give them some academic sources they can look into. This also helps me with my final assignment by getting suggestions from other students for my DA and receive more academic resources suggested by them.

Comment 1:

For the first comment, I went over briefly about how her DA was interesting and heading in the right direction by pointing out the clear objectives through out her beta video and blog post. I also highlighted that she mentioned her methodology which was clear and well structured. Also providing Xoese with an academic resource to add to her analysis research will benefit her final essay with interviewing her father.

Comment 2:

In the second comment I really enjoyed stating my opinion due to me being interested in crime skits on TikTok and enabling to engage more with Kate’s DA. With this comment I also mentioned criteria work and how she didn’t repeat herself in both posts which was specified in the assignment details. It’s important to mention frameworks with all peer comments as its mentioning subject materials, I also said using TikTok as a social media platform is a very good way to gain an audience quick.

Comment 3:

For the last comment, I kept it short and simple due to their post being shorter than the others so it was less information to go off, however it was another interesting DA I could relate to as being a girl into self care. I also mentioned some advice on expanding on more ethnographic research for her next assignment. Overall I think peer commentary is successful way to engage more with peer’s DAs and help with your own DA.

Peer Commentary on BETA (BCM 215)

Beta commentary was the last round of comments we will do for BCM 215, however it was similar to the first round of comments in the pitch commentary but I decided to go more into depth with the analytical frameworks and point out what they put in their video or blog and suggest what they need to add in. This has helped me for my final essay as I can give and receive feedback on my DA which adds to my research on my specific gaming audience.

Comment 1:

With this first comment, I kept it to more of a criteria perspective by bringing out the details in her beta video and blog post. So firstly I start with a positive comment which I do for all of them to be supportive in their final project development. Also mentioning details about what was written in the criteria about what not to do helps highlight what they have done well in and how much they relate their DA back to the subject materials. Mentioning analytic frameworks is important as it also helps them to keep on track with the frameworks mentioned for their final essay. Suggesting further action they could take so it can help them gain as much research from the audience so they have evidence to put in their final project is important as well.

Comment 2:

In the second comment, I make it clear that its an interesting topic and also one that relates to this generation due to most people my age (including myself) had a DS and played the multiple games Georgie referred to through out her beta post. I also point out in the comment that her research highlighted her chosen analytical frameworks and added a link of an academic source to help add to her chosen DA. Also keeping it positive and encouraging helps to remind them they are on the right path.

Comment 3:

With the last comment, I went over how the structure of his DA wasn’t repetitive and suggested to add more research into his final essay or for future times. The same as the rest, I mentioned analytic framework which is important in all DA work to implement subject materials. Also pointed out in all the comments the details about their beta video or blog post. For an example I related my DA back to Richards DA as he has the same ideology as me, merging two subjects together on a youtube account, and using the audience as apart of his analysis. Overall peer commentary is a helpful way to see if your DA is interesting to other students and to compare yours to theirs to see if you are on the right track.

Emotional Hustle (BETA)

My DA (Emotional Hustle) is an instagram and TikTok page that supports mental health and shares quotes that are relatable to anyone going through a similar situation. I decided to go along the lines with mental health and a quote page as a niche due to mental health being a huge a advocate across all nations. There are plenty of mental health pages on instagram and TikTok however, I wanted to create a more inviting and aesthetic way that matches a theme so it can get more exposure on different platforms.

https://www.instagram.com/emotionalhustle/

https://www.tiktok.com/@emotionalhustle?

As I created these pages, I wanted to interact with my audience as much as I can by posting polls on the instagram page and enabling comments on TikTok in order to receive feedback on EmotionalHustle and what type of audience I was attracting.

By sharing stories on instagram, I was able to see what audience I was attracting and what they like to see on EmotionalHustle. As I created original instagram posts, I also wanted to illustrate to my audience and encourage my followers to interact with other accounts similar to mine. For an example I would repost other mental health pages such as “ThePositiveMinds”, “MentalHealthMinds” and the “KanyeWestDiaries” which on a personal level I followed on my own instagram account to help me through my mental health struggles.

I have attracted more of a female following under the age of 30, located in the same area as me on instagram. This is due to me enabling my location on around the Sydney area so my audience’s explore page will notice my account and also similar accounts will pop up including mine who have a similar niche to get more exposure. Overtime, I gained a following in the triple digits due to me promoting on twitter, instagram and TikTok to attract a following who love an aesthetic pleasing account.

As I posted more on TikTok, I started to realise more shares and likes were being received by different audiences which was great news as people were tagging each-other to watch the TikTok videos. TikTok pages are more likely to be a hit rather than instagram so it didn’t take me long to get more than 3000 likes across all videos and attract an audience of young girls who like to see aesthetic short videos.

The problems I did encounter with the instagram page was not putting enough hashtags to get more engagement so I didn’t gain the followers as expected. This is also due to not posting enough content and not promoting “emotionalhustle” enough on other instagram pages to get the following I’d hoped for. For TikTok, the issues I have is that some of the content I found looked too similar to “emotionalhustle” so it made it a bit harder to stand out however, with the help of Pinterest and underrated twitter accounts, I was about to find quotes that not many accounts have used and create aesthetic videos for my account.

Beta Monitor Your Kid’s Video Games!!

Throughout the process of Controversial Studios Presents, I have continued with the same idea as my BCM 215 pitch with the youtube channel. However I was about to go with the ideas of posting blog forms so it was easier to exemplify my scholarly research however, I went to just stick with the one content so it was easier for me instead of spreading across multiple platforms. The feedback I received from the Pitch helped me illiterate more academic research into the controversial video games section of my channel and included great sources from my peers to help me produce more about these unethical games.

As each video comes out weekly, I have posted it to twitter for my audience to interact with my videos and receive any sort of feedback in the comment section of each video posted. The framework I have highlighted through out my channel for the video games section selected is structuralism of the game and the political aspects it has due to the controversy of each video game. In BCM 215 I mainly based my analysis of making videos about unethical video games on the modality, technique and experiences from users to construct an ideology of why these games are politically concerning For research, I tended to go with more scholarly research about the games I was presenting for an example, I would go to the UOW library and find multiple text about violence in video game including “Computers in Human Behaviour” which I mainly got my academic resources from for illustrating the influences of violent games. To also add to my videos, I would search for news articles about the games talked about on Controversial Studios Presents and how people reacted or how they interpreted the game which helped me connect in an audience perspective.

THE MORE #FREEBRITNEY THE BETA!

Through out the process of Controversial Studios Presents, I have repeatedly used an auto-ethnographic approach about #FreeBritney by exemplifying my opinions about the situation and gain sources from a fanbase I am apart of in my youtube videos. I have also included net ethnographic research of Britney Spears’s conservatorship and the people behind the scenes of the unethical enforced program to run Britney’s estate to illustrate to my audience an insight to the trending #FreeBritney and how the hashtag has gotten more media coverage to represent what is going on withe Britney Spears. I decided to go with Youtube content about #FreeBritney niche due to making it simpler and more advance to get my media niche across to my audience about the controversies behind #FreeBritney and why there was this trend in the first place. Preparing Controversial Studios Presents, I gained multiple synthesises and combined them into one through the ideology of structured and unstructured which was learnt through out BCM241.

The way I used unstructured information such as the #FreeBritney Trend and what fans have posted, gave me great examples to put on my Youtube channel of observation participant acts such as the protests in front of the Los Angeles courts and gather in structured focus groups online to help fellow pop star Britney Spears regain her freedom. I also found my DA to be inlined with the latest news so it was easier for me to present to my audience my opinion about the on going case and repost the news on twitter/instagram using #FreeBritney also to be within the community.

Expanding the #FreeBritney Online Persona

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA – AUGUST 19: Supporters of Britney Spears gather outside a courthouse in downtown for a #FreeBritney protest as a hearing regarding Spears’ conservatorship is in session on August 19, 2020 in Los Angeles, California. Spears was placed in a conservatorship managed by her father, James Spears, and an attorney following her involuntary hospitalization for mental care in 2008. (Photo by Matt Winkelmeyer/Getty Images)

When describing last week’s epiphanies and using fan accounts as a source of interacting with the Britney Army, I thought I would adapt a bit more on my personal experience with Britney Spears fan culture, how my DA relates to me personally, and why I decided to use youtube as a platform for Controversial Studios Presents.

For my first epiphany, describing myself as a fan girl of Britney Spears since the age of 12 helped me build an online persona for my DA and share researched information that I am passionate about to my targeted audience. Through out the years I have kept tabs on the history of Britney Spears, especially the highs and lows of her career which helped me shape my ethnographic research and create my media niche. The era I would always remember first about Britney Spears is her early 2000’s moments as a teenager before the conservatorship and how different her mental state was then to now. I connected to those moment from early years due to how positive she was and her stage presence which really got me intrigued from a young age. Also Britney’s songs motivated me through out of high school to be the best version I could possibly be and keep a healthy lifestyle due to watching her music videos. With music’s deep connection to the limbic system, people tend to find connections in music through memories. (Millersville University) the limbic system sets off a sensation that brings back memories from a certain time from a certain place. “The Limbic areas of the brain, known to be associated with emotions, were found to be involved in rhythm and tonality processing”. ( Rosie Davies). This means we associate with the rhythm, tones and lyrics of each song.

Second epiphany I want to expand more on is the #FreeBritney research I’m currently doing and how it relates to me on a personal level similar to Britney Spears’s career itself. The reason why #FreeBritney relates to me personally due to the mental health struggles behind the conservatorship and my own personal battle with depression makes me feel that I am not alone and that people are willing to help like what #FreeBritney is all about. The online persona of #FreeBritney is the driving force for Britney’s freedom to regain her estate back and is journalised through all social media platforms. Even though social media can be a root cause of mental health issues, social media can also be used to set awareness of what is going on in the world and what we can do to help with these issues. “Using a nationally representative sample, we assessed the association of two dimensions of social media use—how much it’s routinely used and how emotionally connected users are to the platforms—with three health-related outcomes: social well-being, positive mental health, and self-rated health.” (Havard. TH. Chan School) Havard School of Health goes on to say sharing positive feed on social media as apart of everyday routine and responding to that type of content is a form of emotional self-rated health.

Finally for the third epiphany, using youtube as a social media platform for my DA, is easier for me to present my research to my audience about #FreeBritney and easier to use videos as a source instead of writing blogs as it feels like more of a flow when speaking in videos. Using net ethnographic research and combine it with auto-ethnographic research helps me categories each weekly youtube video. With youtube’s algorithm, it is definded by the viewers history (Personalisation), the performance of the video (performance) and the overall audience or market (the external factors) (Paige Cooper).

References:

Pharm, J 2021, What Are the Major Functions of the Limbic System?, MedicineNet, MedicineNet, viewed 13 September 2021, <https://www.medicinenet.com/what_are_the_major_functions_of_the_limbic_system/article.htm&gt;.

Cooper, P 2021, “How Does the YouTube Algorithm Work in 2021? The Complete Guide“,Hootsuite, webblog, viewed September 21st.

https://blog.hootsuite.com/how-the-youtube-algorithm-works/

Roeder, A, 2020, “Social media use can be positive for mental health and well-being” Havard TH Chan School of public health, Article, viewed 21st September.

Davies R, 2018 “What does music do to the brain, body and soul?” Scottish Ensemble, article, Viewed 21st September

All for One and One for All (Nostalgia FrameWork)

Overtime as my research develops, a framework that comes to mind each time I revisit different games to help my DA form or to help me expand my knowledge in games media is Nostalgia. Nostalgia is what helps me identify my experience in the games media community and help me understand the structures of the games I use to play in my childhood. It also sculpts user’s thoughts towards a particular game and creates an opinion of experience for other curious people to jump on board and play the game.

What is Nostalgia?

Nostalgia helps create opinions around specific games and is apart of creating a textual analysis of any game played. This framework is one of the most important due to one’s memory of the game which therefore forms an opinion and pretty much sets in stone their thoughts about their experience of the game. For an example what I was talking about in week 2’s blog post when it comes to childhood memories, having positive nostalgia around Club Penguin helped me form my opinion so I could share to others who have similar experience of the game. With the increasing re-use of media turning nostalgia into a selling pointor commodity (Menke, 2017) The idea of nostalgia has been implied throughout the media as opportunities for gaming companies to reboot childhood games such as Club Penguin Rewritten. “The reaction, they explain to me, is one of heavy-duty nostalgia.” (Manavis 2020). Club Penguin Rebooted gave the game designers the opportunity to create a mature version of the 2000’s game for millennials that have now turned adults who use to enjoy the game in their younger years. Therefore, nostalgia is an important aspect to understand due to how much it impacts a game’s review and how much the media utilises nostalgia for centuries, even emulating things people may never have actually experienced (Niemeyer 2014). 

“The purpose of our server is to create a safe but enjoyable experience for those that wish to experience nostalgia or to hang out and meet new friends across the globe.” (Creators of CP written)

What is Structuralism?

Structuralism within a game is crucial that users are going through the same process and taking the same meaning when playing a specific game. With Club Penguin, a structural consciousness is applied when describing the game and getting opinions from other users and if they have the same experience as myself of playing Club Penguin which also links in with nostalgia and how an opinion is formed. Many structuralist believe that through language and text, people construct themselves and the world they live in. (Games as Texts: A Practical Application of Textual Analysis to Games) So it is important in games to make sure the meaning from one text can also relate to another text meaning within the game design. Structuralism can also be illustrated through playing the game that creates meaning which is an important analytic technique for any game.

Why is the audience important?

Games attract a certain audience that like a specific genre, easy to understand the game and can connect with each-other within their social groups. The audience is an important framework as it utilises users playing the game who understand the text of the game. Fans also take steps further by expressing their experiences on subreddit comments or any other social media platforms creates an audience for the gaming industry. Fan culture through participation on blogs and gamers can be used to understand different types of gaming communities. (Jenkins 2006) Especially in Club Penguin Rewritten‘s case, an audience based on millennials caused by nostalgia have had their fanbase since early 2000’s and continued to be played and talked about since the shut down of the original Club Penguin in 2017.

References

https://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/2018/08/rebooted-club-penguin-giving-millennials-their-first-dose-digital

Manvis, Sarah, 2018, A rebooted Club Penguin is giving millennials their first dose of digital nostalgia, webblog post, United Kingdom, updated 26th July 2021

https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/5534/1923

Menke, M 2017, ‘Seeking Comfort in Past Media: Modelling Media Nostalgia as a Way of Coping With Media Change’, International Journal of Communication, vol. 11, pp. 626-646

Jenkins, H 2006, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture, NYU Press, New York, USA.

Cole A, Dakoda B, 2021, “Games as Texts: A Practical Application of Textual Analysis to Games” Chapter 2 Games and Structure book,

Analysing Raessen’ts frameworks through GTA 

Raessen’t frameworks are straight forward categories that highlights types of participation within the gaming industry which is interpretation, construction and reconfiguration. With this said he also has sub categories that are techniques of the above frameworks: virtuality, multimediality, interactivity and connectivity. All of these frameworks come together and in sync with hand to hand work.

Understanding Multimediality:

Multimediality is a simple way to use more than one media source in anything. For an example if you are writing a blog and decide to add more media sources such as videos or sounds in the blog post that would be using multimediality. GTA is another video game that uses multimediality by using audio, text and visuals within the video game such as sound effects when the characters use guns, police sirens and speaking to one another, audio is used to make the game overall interactive.

What is Virtuality?:

Virtuality is the experience of codes as having a temporal and spatial dimension which is illustrated in the same category as multimediality. GTA represents virtuality by being based in an absurd virtual world in Los Angeles where everything is legalised from stealing cars and creating violence towards people. Techniques such as virtuality connect all together in GTA with interactivity and connectivity.

Meaning of interactivity:

Interactively within games media, can be defined as the ability of a computer to respond to a users input. With GTA, It’s easy being interactive through using the mouse on the computer or using the controller to control your characters movement and activities they do. Game & interactive media is the creation of video games and interactive media programs using advanced computer programming and animation techniques. (animation creation career reviews)

What is connectivity?

Connectivity is connecting networks together to play and interact with each other, with this said this means connecting an individual across all gaming devices and networks so they can verse or play with each other. However as this is a way of being social, it’s also being anti social and effecting the attention economy by being attached to gaming and phone devices. With GTA, it can connect across all devices and everyone can verse each other.

GTA is explained through out my DA Controversial Studios Presents and has these elements of visuality, connectivity and multimediality through the unethical reasonings of GTA.

Observing Research and Creating an Online Persona for #FreeBritney

For my DA in #BCM 241, I have created an easy and accessible online niche to present to my audience the research and my passion behind #FreeBritney. By sharing my digital artefact on twitter I have gained knowledge on who uses twitter and found that it is easier for myself to upload youtube links for Controversial Studios Presents.

With autoethnographic research, I have assembled media coverage, documentaries, twitter and instagram posts to observe the situation with Britney Spears and how social media has helped her with the undergoing conservatorship. Most of the research also includes digital and net ethnographies that is highlighted through out my DA. Also the unstructured twitter hashtag has over 3.5 million posts to help with my research and observe the audience of #FreeBritney. As apart of the Britney Army fanbase, using fan instagram accounts for getting the latest information on her court case has also highlighted my participation in my chosen Media Niece due to following and viewing stories of these fan accounts.

It is important to observe the actual fanbase of Britney Spears and how it has impacted her freedom in the conservatorship in order to provide my recount on Controversial Studios Presents. #FreeBritney was taken from twitter into the physical world as fans protested outside Washington and Los Angeles courts which impacted the decision to lift her father as Conservator due to the fans causing more and more media coverage.

Ultimately, by using more digital and net ethnographic research I am able to provide sufficient evidence to continue with Controversial Studios Presents and use my personal experience as a Britney Spears fan to observe the trending hashtag and keep up to date with what is happening with her court case.